A Data Record that contains the information as defined in the X.509 Format.
Issuer of the Digital Certificate. Also validates the Identity of the End-Entity that posseses the Digital Certificate.
Certificate Signing Request (CSR) is what you send to a Certifiate Authority (CA) to get enrolled. A CSR contains the Public Key of the End-Entity that is a requesting the Digital Certificate.
Common Name is the name of the End-Entity e.g. Saqib Ali. If the End-Entity is a WebServer the CN is the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) of the WebServer
A certificate that binds a Public Key to a Subject (end-entity). This certificate also contains other indentifying information about the subject as defined in the X.509 Format. It is signed by Issuing CA, using CA's pivate key. e.g. of a digital certificate
A Digital Signature is created by signing the Message Digest (Message Hash) using the Private Key. It ensures the Identity of the Sender, and the Integrity of the Data.
Similar to a Message Digest (Hash/Fingerprint), except the Shared Secret Key is used in the process of calculating the Hash. Since a shared secret key is used, an attacker can not change the Message Digest. However the shared secret key has to be first communicated to the participating entities, unlike Digital Signature where Message Digest is signed using the Private Key. HMAC is an example of a Message Authentication Code Algorithm.
Message Digest 5 (MD5) is a 128-bit one-way hash function
Private Key is the Key in Asymmetric Cryptography that is kept secret by the owner (End-Entity). Can be used for encryption or decryption
Public Key is the Key in Asymmetric Cryptography that is widely distributed. Can be used for encryption or decryption
Public Key Infrastructure
Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1) is a 160-bit one-way hash function. Maximum message is 2^64 bits.
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is a security protocol that provides authentication (Digital Certificate), confidentiality (encryption), and data integrity (Message Digest - MD5, SHA etc).
In this cryptography the message the encrypted and decrypted by the same key. (((n^2-n))/2) keys are required for n users who want to participate in this system of cryptography.