A function may recursively call itself even without use of local variables.

**Example 24.16. The Fibonacci Sequence**

#!/bin/bash # fibo.sh : Fibonacci sequence (recursive) # Author: M. Cooper # License: GPL3 # ----------algorithm-------------- # Fibo(0) = 0 # Fibo(1) = 1 # else # Fibo(j) = Fibo(j-1) + Fibo(j-2) # --------------------------------- MAXTERM=15 # Number of terms (+1) to generate. MINIDX=2 # If idx is less than 2, then Fibo(idx) = idx. Fibonacci () { idx=$1 # Doesn't need to be local. Why not? if [ "$idx" -lt "$MINIDX" ] then echo "$idx" # First two terms are 0 1 ... see above. else (( --idx )) # j-1 term1=$( Fibonacci $idx ) # Fibo(j-1) (( --idx )) # j-2 term2=$( Fibonacci $idx ) # Fibo(j-2) echo $(( term1 + term2 )) fi # An ugly, ugly kludge. # The more elegant implementation of recursive fibo in C #+ is a straightforward translation of the algorithm in lines 7 - 10. } for i in $(seq 0 $MAXTERM) do # Calculate $MAXTERM+1 terms. FIBO=$(Fibonacci $i) echo -n "$FIBO " done # 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 # Takes a while, doesn't it? Recursion in a script is slow. echo exit 0

**Example 24.17. The Towers of Hanoi**

#! /bin/bash # # The Towers Of Hanoi # Bash script # Copyright (C) 2000 Amit Singh. All Rights Reserved. # http://hanoi.kernelthread.com # # Tested under Bash version 2.05b.0(13)-release. # Also works under Bash version 3.x. # # Used in "Advanced Bash Scripting Guide" #+ with permission of script author. # Slightly modified and commented by ABS author. #=================================================================# # The Tower of Hanoi is a mathematical puzzle attributed to #+ Edouard Lucas, a nineteenth-century French mathematician. # # There are three vertical posts set in a base. # The first post has a set of annular rings stacked on it. # These rings are disks with a hole drilled out of the center, #+ so they can slip over the posts and rest flat. # The rings have different diameters, and they stack in ascending #+ order, according to size. # The smallest ring is on top, and the largest on the bottom. # # The task is to transfer the stack of rings #+ to one of the other posts. # You can move only one ring at a time to another post. # You are permitted to move rings back to the original post. # You may place a smaller ring atop a larger one, #+ but *not* vice versa. # Again, it is forbidden to place a larger ring atop a smaller one. # # For a small number of rings, only a few moves are required. #+ For each additional ring, #+ the required number of moves approximately doubles, #+ and the "strategy" becomes increasingly complicated. # # For more information, see http://hanoi.kernelthread.com #+ or pp. 186-92 of _The Armchair Universe_ by A.K. Dewdney. # # # ... ... ... # | | | | | | # _|_|_ | | | | # |_____| | | | | # |_______| | | | | # |_________| | | | | # |___________| | | | | # | | | | | | # .--------------------------------------------------------------. # |**************************************************************| # #1 #2 #3 # #=================================================================# E_NOPARAM=66 # No parameter passed to script. E_BADPARAM=67 # Illegal number of disks passed to script. Moves= # Global variable holding number of moves. # Modification to original script. dohanoi() { # Recursive function. case $1 in 0) ;; *) dohanoi "$(($1-1))" $2 $4 $3 echo move $2 "-->" $3 ((Moves++)) # Modification to original script. dohanoi "$(($1-1))" $4 $3 $2 ;; esac } case $# in 1) case $(($1>0)) in # Must have at least one disk. 1) # Nested case statement. dohanoi $1 1 3 2 echo "Total moves = $Moves" # 2^n - 1, where n = # of disks. exit 0; ;; *) echo "$0: illegal value for number of disks"; exit $E_BADPARAM; ;; esac ;; *) echo "usage: $0 N" echo " Where \"N\" is the number of disks." exit $E_NOPARAM; ;; esac # Exercises: # --------- # 1) Would commands beyond this point ever be executed? # Why not? (Easy) # 2) Explain the workings of the workings of the "dohanoi" function. # (Difficult -- see the Dewdney reference, above.)